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58 MIN READ TIME

Black Smoker Geysers

Once I began to enjoy collecting minerals, my curiosity took over. I realized these beautiful things came from the earth but how did they get there? How do they form? Thus began a lifelong journey into mineral literature and asking questions about minerals. You would think that by now we have all the answers about how minerals end up where we find them. Wrong! We are still making discoveries that relate to where minerals come from.

One of the most informative and significant modern discoveries about minerals happened in 1979 when scientists were doing deep ocean explorations along the East Pacific Rise, where crustal faulting and spreading and volcanic activities were occurring. The research revealed super-hot, black waters gushing like geysers from the fault zones on the ocean floor. The water was super-hot because it was bursting from deep in an area of hot volcanic activity, under pressure that was exposed on the seafloor that was slowly spreading apart along a major fault. These hot spring erupting areas were what scientists call volcanic vents, which are places where the super-heated waters within the crust are under such pressure that they had to burst forth.

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About Rock&Gem Magazine

Rock & Gem June 2019, Jasper Orbs : Formation of Unique Features, Turquoise Mining, Special Section : Tools of the Trade, And More...

Other Articles in this Issue


REGULAR COLUMNS
In response to Tom Hiday’s request in Field Notes of
On many forums, I frequently see questions about how
In the May issue, I discussed making composite materials
The beauty of observation is that each inspection can
‘Geological Google’ and the ‘Basal’ Fossil Debate
Pursuit of Passions Results in Giologica
Gold panners tend to categorize their pan concentrates
TO VIEW LATER CALENDAR DATES VISIT OUR SITE AT ROCKNGEM.COM.
Rock & Gem continues to celebrate the chemical
The lightly striated faces of the translucent deep
Beckett Rock & Gem
Loaded with Sulfide Minerals, They’re a Miner’s Best Friend
Carolyn Weinberger (1943-2019)
New, Natural, and Native American
Many years ago, my elementary school teacher said something
It’s possible Dr. Seuss summed it up best when he penned
Roth Family Favors Cameo Carving
An Experience of Change and Growth
Linarite is said to be highly regarded by mineral collectors
MINES AND MUSEUM IN LITTLE SWITZERLAND
Manifestations of an Enigmatic Phenomenon (Part I)
UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY MAKES DREAMS POSSIBLE